Scrum Questions

Scrum is not a simple thing. Many people ask me questions on different Scrum topics. I will publish my answers here.

1. Essential features of a Scrum Team
Q: It is regarding the question on psm-quiz on your site.
What are the two essential features a Scrum Team should possess?

  1. It should choose how best to accomplish their work, rather than being directed by others outside the team
  2. It should have all competencies needed to accomplish the work without depending on others not part of the team
  3. It should use tools, processes and techniques approved by the Organization
  4. It should be flexible enough to complete all the work planned for the Sprint even if some team members are on vacation

Though the explanation mentions 1 &2 as the answer for this but shouldn’t option 3 also be the answer for this question. Development team should be using tools, process and techniques approved by organization and if there is any hindrance the scrum master should notice this as impediment and talk to respective stakeholders?

Mikhail: For me #3 looks like a contradiction to #1. As long as the team creates increments according to the DoD, it can use any techniques, tools, etc.

2. Architecture type questions
Q: I noticed that the official Scaled Scrum open exam contains a few architecture type questions. There does not seem to be any reference material around this subject area and just wondered if you could point out some good learning material?

Mikhail: I think, Scaled Scrum does not prescribe any particular architecture. It only says the dependencies between teams should be minimized and we should inspect and adapt frequently. So, it is an ongoing process. Evaluating the current architecture and suggesting ways to improve it is a part of every Sprint.

As I remember, the open Scaled Scrum quiz contains only the following topics:

Q: A system is decomposed into elements like workflows, features, capabilities, etc. How it affects Scrum Teams on a scaled project?
A: It will be reflected in the implementation.

Q: Two ways how Dev Teams can ensure a good application architecture?
* Architecture is an ongoing discussion
* The DT should have a set of architecture principles and follow them

Q: How to start a big complex project?
A: Form 1-2 teams of best developers for implementing the core, add more teams later.

You see, there are no any specific architectural questions. So, nothing to read about this. 🙂
However, the exam contains references to SOA (service-oriented architecture). It is worth to get a high level view of SOA, or at least read its definition. For example at Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service-oriented_architecture

3. Opportunities to inspect and adapt
Q: Your quiz contains a question that asks to check all the opportunities to inspect and adapt from a list. There is “Sprint” option. Why it is considered as incorrect?

Mikhail: The idea is simple. All the other options are Scrum Events. Any event in Scrum is an opportunity to inspect and adapt. Sprint is not an event. It is just a time frame.

4. Who creates DoD?
Q: Your quiz has the following question: Who is responsible for creation of the Definition of “Done”? The expected answer is the Development Team. However, some Scrum materials declare that the Scrum Team creates DoD. What is the correct answer?

Mikhail: The Scrum Guide says: “The Development Team of the Scrum Team must define a definition of “done” appropriate for the product.” So, the correct answer is the Development Team.
From my point of view, DT owns DoD on behalf of the whole Scrum Team. So, it is possible to say “Scrum Team creates DoD”, however “Development Team creates DoD” is more precise.

5. Stakeholders and PB transparency
Q: During sprint review stakeholders notice that the product development progress is not very clearly visible and lacked transparency. Moreover, they are not able to understand the next steps. Who is responsible for this?

Mikhail: The Product Owner is responsible for this.

In the Scrum Guide you can find that the PO is responsible for:
* Ensuring that the Product Backlog is visible, transparent, and clear to all, and shows what the Scrum Team will work on next;

At the Sprint Review:
* The PO explains what Product Backlog items have been “Done” and what has not been “Done”;
* The entire group collaborates on what to do next, so that the Sprint Review provides valuable input to subsequent Sprint Planning;

The Product Owner is the Lead Facilitator of Key Stakeholder Involvement. The PO is responsible for identifying the key stakeholders for the product and involving them as necessary throughout the development effort.

6. UI markup to better understand a Product feature?
Q: Scrum Team decides they need to create one more artifact UI markup to better understand the product feature, can they proceed or not since Scrum Teams should capture product features/needs only in Product Backlog?

Mikhail: Of course, the team can proceed. Right, PB is the single source of requirements for any changes to be made to the product. If the Scrum Team does not understand what should be done next, it means the PB needs to be refined. The Product Owner should put his product vision as backlog items, maybe with help of the Development Team.
A product backlog item should contain everything necessary to be understood by any member of the Scrum Team. So, if a new UI markup needs to be developed, it should be a part (task) of some item (story) in the PB. When the markup is ready, it should be attached to the item.
So, the answer is not a simple “yes/no”. I would carefully look at the wording of the suggested answers to be maximally close to the point I described above.

7. Stakeholders at PBL refinement sessions?
Q: Can the PO invite stakeholders to PBL refinement sessions?

Mikhail: I would say the PO should not usually do this. The PO must be the arbiter of product value and how it is represented to the team. Frequently key stakeholders do not know exactly what they want and how it can be achieved. This is a job for the PO to understand their needs, decide how they can be fulfilled with the maximum value.
Probably, in rare cases a key stakeholder can be invited as a domain expert to a product refinement session. However, the PO should have the final word.

8. Does PB contain only functional requirements?
Q: Does the Product Backlog contain only functional requirements for the Product?

Mikhail: No. The Scrum Glossary gives the following definition for Product Backlog: “It is an ordered list of the work to be done in order to create, maintain and sustain a product.” So, Scrum is not specific about exactly what a Product Backlog Item is or how it should be expressed. It is just “work to be done”.
The Scrum Guide gives a bit more details about a PBI: it should have the attributes of a description, order, estimate, and value. However, it does not change the “work to be done” definition much. For example, a Product Backlog can contain knowledge acquisition tasks, prototyping, technical chores etc.
However, there is one important moment: a Product Backlog should contain items that the Product Owner cares about, in the sense that they add clear business value and can be ordered by him or her. If there are some “Developer Stories”, i.e. removing technical debt, they can be introduced by the Development Team into their own Sprint Backlog, if they think such stories are necessary in order to help mitigate a technical risk.

9. Should the PO approve the DoD?
Q: Should the PO approve the DoD?

Mikhail: The Scrum Guide says that everyone in the Scrum Team must understand what “Done” means. So, the PO should be definitely aware of the DoD.
However, only the Development Team is in a position to define the DoD, because it asserts the quality of the work that *they* must perform.
The quality asserted must be appropriate for the Product, which implies that the PO must be consulted. Failure to consult the PO may result in an Increment not being accepted, as the DoD would not then be shared.
So, the answer is a kind of “yes”. Formally the approval is not required, but practically the DT and the PO should agree on the DoD. Otherwise the PO may not accept the Increment. For example, the PO can find that the Product is too buggy, slow, hard to use, etc.

10. Can the SM create a PBI?
Q: Who can create a Product Backlog item? Can the Scrum Master do it?

Mikhail: The Scrum guide says:
The Product Owner is the sole person responsible for managing the Product Backlog… The Product Owner may do the above work, or have the Development Team do it. However, the Product Owner remains accountable.

Creation of a PBI relates to PB management. So, certainly the PO is responsible for this. However, he can delegate this work to the Development Team.
If the Scrum Master combines his role with the Developer role (the most common situation), he is a part of the Development Team and can create PBIs when it is agreed with the PO. Otherwise, I think, he should not do it.

In my quizzes I have a similar question: who can change the PB? The answer is “The PO and the DT with permission of the PO.”

11. How to address non-functional requirements?
Q: How to address non-functional requirements such as security, performance?

Mikhail: Non-functional requirements describe qualities of the system being developed. E.g. the system should be secure, extensible and have acceptable performance. The only way to meet such requirements is to have them as a part of the DoD and check every Increment against these criteria.
From my side I would mention that if some non-functional requirements relate only to a part of the Product (i.e. to some feature), most likely the requirements should be processed as a sub-task within this feature instead of the DoD.

12. How does DoD help in Spring Planning?
Q: How does DoD guide the DT in knowing how many PBL items it can select during Sprint planning?

Mikhail: The DoD helps to reveal the work necessary to complete a PB item. So, it helps to estimate how much time it will take. With better estimations the Development Team can better plan which items can be completed in the upcoming Sprint.

21 Comments

  1. Anu

    Hi Mikhail,
    I recently took the PSPO – 1 exam and failed with a 80%. I have a few questions which I think might have been the cause for missing the passing score. I wanted to get your opinion on what might be the correct answers for them.
    1. During the Sprint Review it is up to the stakeholders to reorder the Product Backlog. T or F (my answer – FALSE)
    2. The items selected from the Product Backlog for the Sprint Backlog should be “ready”. T or F (my answer – TRUE)
    3. Product Owners must specify complete acceptance criteria for a Product Backlog item before the team can select the item in Sprint Planning (T or F)- my answer – TRUE)
    4. Which of the following is a reason for the Product Owner to pay attention to technical debt? I selected this choice: To have a better understanding of the total-cost-of-ownership, as affected by the maintenance cost. but I don’t remember the choices
    5. A product’s success is measured by:
    A) The impact on customer satisfaction.
    B) The delivery of upfront defined scope compared to the upfront planned time.
    C) The impact on revenue.
    D) The impact on cost.
    E) The impact on my performance rating.
    F) The impact on my boss’s mood.
    6. What should the Product Owner do in the middle of the Sprint, when the Development Team realizes they are not able to finish all the Sprint Backlog items?
    A) Adjust the developers work to make sure they will meet the Sprint Goal
    B) Help the developers adjust their work and meet the Sprint Goal
    C) Remove some of the Product Backlog items from the Sprint Backlog
    D) Cancel the Sprint
    7. You are a product manager with a proven track record in your company. Your management has asked you to take the lead in the development of a new product. Six teams new to Scrum will build this product. You have gathered a number of requirements and ideas into an early form of a Product Backlog. How would you minimize dependencies between the Scrum Teams?

    A) You create an independent Product Backlog per Scrum Team.
    B) You identify the dependencies and re-order the Product Backlog for them.
    C) You work with the Development Teams on how to best parse the work.
    D) You divide Product Backlog items among the six Product Owners.
    E) You raise this as an impediment with the Scrum Master.
    I selected E but I think it should have been B. Not sure.
    8. What are two ways that architecture and infrastructure are handled in Scrum?
    A)They are discussed, determined, and documented before the actual feature development Sprints.
    B)They are added to the Product Backlog and addressed in early Sprints, while always requiring at least some business functionality, no matter how small.
    C)They are built by a separate team through the creation of an architectural runway.
    D)They are implemented along with functional development of the product.
    Not sure what might be the correct answer.
    9. When should the Product Backlog be refined? (Choose 2 answers)
    A)The Product Owner and the Development Team do it in the 1-2 preceding Sprints.
    B)The Product Owner takes the time between the Sprints to do it.
    C)The Product Owner must do this as essential work in Sprint 0.
    D)The Product Owner and the Development Team do it in the actual Sprint if they haven’t been able to do it in preceding Sprints.
    E)Business analysts in the organization should do this work for the Scrum Team 1-2 Sprints ahead of the development Sprints.
    I marked A and D

    Let me know your thoughts.

    I thank you for helping me with the preparation for this certification by providing the mock quizzes. I did see many questions from your list.
    Thank you,
    Anu

    1. mlapshin (Post author)

      Hi Anu,

      Thanks for using my quizzes.
      I am sorry that you did not pass the PSPO exam.
      Let me try to answer your questions.

      Q: During the Sprint Review it is up to the stakeholders to reorder the Product Backlog.
      A: False. Only PO can reorder Product Backlog items.

      Q: The items selected from the Product Backlog for the Sprint Backlog should be “ready”.
      A: True. “Ready” here means that all higher ordered Product Backlog items are refined so that any one item can reasonably be “Done” within the Sprint time-box.

      Q: Product Owners must specify complete acceptance criteria for a Product Backlog item before the team can select the item in Sprint Planning.
      A: It is a very strange question. There is only one Product Owner for a Product. What does the acceptance criteria mean here? Is it Definition of Done? If yes, the Development team is responsible for it.

      Q: Which of the following is a reason for the Product Owner to pay attention to technical debt?
      A: Just read something about technical debt, for example here.
      If the technical debt grows, it becomes harder to make changes in the code. In an extreme case at some point no new changes can be made without breaking existing functionality.
      Any answers correlating with this idea are correct.
      Definitely if the technical debt grows, it increases maintenance cost and the total cost of ownership.

      Q: A product’s success is measured by: …
      A: Product success or value, as defined in a Scrum context, is the financial benefit an organization receives or might receive by creating and releasing the product under development. Also it could be
      “societal benefit” instead.
      From your list of options I see the following suitable choices:
      * The impact on customer satisfaction. (it indirectly affects revenue)
      * The impact on revenue.
      * The impact on cost.

      Q: What should the Product Owner do in the middle of the Sprint, when the Development Team realizes they are not able to finish all the Sprint Backlog items?
      A: The Scrum Guide says: If the work turns out to be different than the Development Team expected, they collaborate with the Product Owner to negotiate the scope of Sprint Backlog within the Sprint.
      So, the correct answer is “Help the developers adjust their work and meet the Sprint Goal”.

      Q: How to minimize dependencies between the Scrum Teams?
      A: C. You work with the Development Teams on how to best parse the work.
      B is wrong because the PO has not enough qualities to identify all dependencies himself.
      E is wrong because it is not an impediment, but just normal work process.

      Q: What are two ways that architecture and infrastructure are handled in Scrum?
      A: B and D. Early sprints and implementation along with functional development of the product.

      Q: When should the Product Backlog be refined? (Choose 2 answers)
      A: You are right, A and D

      1. beni

        I think the solution on question 2 is false.
        „Product Backlog items that can be “Done” by the Development Team within one Sprint are deemed “Ready” for selection in a Sprint Planning. Product Backlog items usually acquire this degree of transparency through the above described refining activities.“

        From my point of view it is recommended that these are ready but not demanded. In other words what is if all your items are not „ready“, then according to yes you would postpone until they are ready and this definitely wrong because there is no reason why a sprint should not start immediately after conclusion of the previous Sprint.

        Question 5
        I agree to the three, but if only one answer is correct. I would not choose revenue, but customer satisfaction as the customer is the most important steakholder. Revenue is not enough to measure the value.

        1. mlapshin (Post author)

          Hi Beni,

          Thanks for the valuable comments!

          I completely agree with your point that the next Sprint should start immediately after the previous one is finished, even if there are not enough items in “ready” state.
          However, at the Spring Planning the team should decide which items they will deliver in the Sprint. It requires understanding of the available items in the Product Backlog and doing at least rough estimation (the selected items should be doable within the Sprint). It means that after the Sprint Planning all the selected items for the Sprint will be “ready”.
          The question is: The items selected from the Product Backlog for the Sprint Backlog should be “ready”. And it looks like “yes” answer does not contradict your point of view.

          The question about product success is a tricky one. There are multiple measures. In different circumstances different measures work best. For example, consider following products:
          * Traditional service or product sold for money
          * Information system for a public library
          * Government agency web site
          * A company does an internal project to compare different technologies and choose the best set allowing minimal time-to-market for new ideas.

          Best regards,
          –Mikhail

  2. Anu

    Thanks Mikhail for your input. Need a few clarification on these two items.
    For this question 3: Product Owners must specify complete acceptance criteria for a Product Backlog item before the team can select the item in Sprint Planning.
    It never said DoD. So, I think the answer should be YES, as the User story should have the acceptance criteria(AC) before it can be groomed. How can the Development team be responsible for completing the AC.

    Question 5: A product’s success is measured by: why can’t the answer be choice B (The delivery of upfront defined scope compared to the upfront planned time). As only one answer is correct how can you mark three answers?
    Thank you,
    Anu

    1. mlapshin (Post author)

      Hi Anu,

      The Scrum Guide says nothing about acceptance criteria for Product Backlog items. From my experience and from other sources it is a good practice to have some Product Backlog items in the form of User Stories. In this case every User Story should have acceptance criteria defined. Acceptance criteria are specific for every story, whereas Definition of Done is a general criteria for any Product Backlog item.
      Acceptance criteria are not the Product Owner’s sole responsibility. They are best defined while having a conversation with the entire team during the Sprint Planning or Product Backlog refinement.

      The question is: Product Owners must specify complete acceptance criteria for a Product Backlog item before the team can select the item in Sprint Planning. True or false.
      I would answer “False” because:

      1. It is not the sole responsibility of the Product Owner to specify complete list of acceptance criteria
      2. Frequently the full list of acceptance criteria is produced only at the Sprint Planning when the whole team collaborates on it

      Anu, you did not write for the question 5 that it is a single choice question. So, I suggested all the variants that could work. If only one option can be selected, I would select “C” (the impact on revenue).
      “B” is not a measure of a product success because if you created a product and delivered it in time, but no one needs it and it does not generate revenue in any form, there is no success.

      –Mikhail

  3. Anu

    Thank you for sharing your perspective. It is really appreciated!

  4. johnsharp123

    Hi Mikhail – I passed the PSM I exam!

    Score: 75 points scored (or 93.8%) out of 80 maximum points

    I could not have done it without your help & guidance. Thank you so so so much!! 🙂

    Sincerely,
    John Sharp

    1. mlapshin (Post author)

      John, I am glad I helped you.

      –Mikhail

  5. Anu

    Hi John,
    Congratulations! Can you share some details of your success story, like how long you have been preparing, how many years of experience you have as a PO, any other tips are also welcome.
    TIA,
    Anu

  6. Tigran

    Hi Mikhail,

    saw sample question in books PSM/PSPO I Cert preparation:

    during sprint review stakeholders notice that the product development progress is not very clearly visible and lacked transparency. Moreover, thery are not able to understand the next steps. Who is responsible for this?
    a) Dev team
    b) PO
    c) SM
    d) Scrum Team

    I would like to get your feedback on this question please.

    Thanks,
    T

    1. mlapshin (Post author)

      The Product Owner is responsible for this. In the Scrum Guide you can find that the PO is responsible for:
      Ensuring that the Product Backlog is visible, transparent, and clear to all, and shows what the Scrum Team will work on next;

      At the Sprint Review:
      * The PO explains what Product Backlog items have been “Done” and what has not been “Done”;
      * The entire group collaborates on what to do next, so that the Sprint Review provides valuable input to subsequent Sprint Planning;

      The Product Owner is the Lead Facilitator of Key Stakeholder Involvement. The PO is responsible for identifying the key stakeholders for the product and involving them as necessary throughout the development effort.

      1. Tigran

        thanks Mikhail!
        my hesitation here was related to the following :

        The Scrum Master must work with the Product Owner, Development Team, and other involved
        parties to understand if the artifacts are completely transparent. There are practices for coping
        with incomplete transparency; the Scrum Master must help everyone apply the most
        appropriate practices in the absence of complete transparency. A Scrum Master can detect
        incomplete transparency by inspecting the artifacts, sensing patterns, listening closely to what is
        being said, and detecting differences between expected and real results.

        making me think that maybe ScrumMaster is also appropriate answer here..

        1. mlapshin (Post author)

          Tigran,it is a good point. I completely agree that the Scrum Master helps to improve transparency.

          From my side I would add the following about Sprint Review:
          * The Development Team demonstrates the work that it has “Done” and answers questions about the Increment;

          So, the Development Team also participates in demonstrating the development progress to the Key Stakeholders.

          If your question is a single-choice question, the answer is PO. If more answers are possible, they are PO, SM and maybe DT.

  7. coolnik

    Hi Mikhail! I have a question:
    What happens when the done items of current and previous sprints when the definition of done is updated/changed to include some more criteria for calling something as “done”?
    Are they taken up in subsequent sprint?
    Another product backlog or sprint backlog item is created for them?

    Thanks in advance!

    1. mlapshin (Post author)

      Hi coolink,

      Thanks for a good question.

      If you change the DoD, all the Items in the upcoming Sprints should comply with it.

      The Scrum Guide says the following about finished Items: “New definitions, as used, may uncover work to be done in previously “Done” increments.”

      So, all the Items completed in the previous Sprints need to be evaluated. Is there something extra to be done? If yes, all the remaining work should be placed in the Product Backlog and processed accordingly.
      For example, your team decided that the Product should follow to some stricter security rules. All the new Items should be designed, developed and tested with respect to the new rules.
      All the implemented functionality needs to be evaluated. If something is found that does not comply with the new rules, it needs to be described and placed in the Product Back log, probably with a high priority.

  8. Tigran

    Hi , Mikhail

    sorry for bothering you again. Just want to get your suggestion/advice.

    I’m preparing myself to pass PSPO, and test my knowledge mainly on your quiz and in tests inside book “The professional scrum product owner guide to pass pspo 1 certification” (by Mohammed Musthafa Soukath Ali) + open assesments on scrum.org.

    While I find answers and explanations to your questions very clear and mainly straight forward sticking really close to what is said and mentioned in oficial SCRUM GUIDE, I see a lot of “added interpretation” in answers in the book’s test mentioned above. That is really kind of frustraiting me in my preparation process and I need to get a “right path” in my thinking model before I really loose my mind 🙂

    Just a few samples for understanding:

    1) Scrum Guide says that all what is needed to describe Product and its requirements (It is the single source of requirements for any changes to be made to the product.) should be in PBL. Question: Scrum Team decides they need to create one more artifact UI markup to better understand the product feature, can they proceed or not since Scrum Teams should capture product features/needs only in Product Backlog?

    2) PO can invite stakeholders to PBL refinement sessions? I would say why not?, of course, however SCRUM GUIDE says that it is only PO + DEV TEAM who does product backlog refinement.

    3) ProdBaclkog contains only functional reqs for product. I would say yes, because: by saying functional it can be meant (bugs, features, enhancements, etc ) and non-functional are added to DoD .
    He says PBL can contain initiatives, fnctional and non-functional product needs, enhancements, fixes, ideas and other product needs.

    4) DoD is defined either by Dev Org or if not – by Dev Team. It shouldn’t be formally approved with PO right? but should definetely be agreed on/so PO is aware/consent.

    5) Scrum Master can author an Product Backlog item for PO’s consideration?

    6) Where can be placed product’s non-func reqs such as security, performance?

    Thanks in advance

    1. mlapshin (Post author)

      Hi Tigran,

      PSPO I exam is a bit harder than PSM I because some of its questions involve “added interpretation”. However, a rule of thumb here is any added interpretation should be in accordance with the Scrum Guide. For me the following two sources of added interpretation were enough to pass the PSPO I exam with just one mistake: The New New Product Owner and Evidence-Based Management Guide brochure. So, I based my PSPO quiz on the same articles and of course on the Scrum Guide.

      I will try to answer your questions one by one below:

      Q: Scrum Team decides they need to create one more artifact UI markup to better understand the product feature, can they proceed or not since Scrum Teams should capture product features/needs only in Product Backlog?

      Mikhail: Of course, the team can proceed. Right, PB is the single source of requirements for any changes to be made to the product. If the Scrum Team does not understand what should be done next, it means the PB needs to be refined. The Product Owner should put his product vision as backlog items, maybe with help of the Development Team.
      A product backlog item should contain everything necessary to be understood by any member of the Scrum Team. So, if a new UI markup needs to be developed, it should be a part (task) of some item (story) in the PB. When the markup is ready, it should be attached to the item.
      So, the answer is not a simple “yes/no”. I would carefully look at the wording of the suggested answers to be maximally close to the point I described above.

      Q: Can the PO invite stakeholders to PBL refinement sessions?
      Mikhail: I would say the PO should not usually do this. The PO must be the arbiter of product value and how it is represented to the team. Frequently key stakeholders do not know exactly what they want and how it can be achieved. This is a job for the PO to understand their needs, decide how they can be fulfilled with the maximum value.
      Probably, in rare cases a key stakeholder can be invited as a domain expert to a product refinement session. However, the PO should have the final word.

      Q: Does the Product Backlog contain only functional requirements for the Product?
      Mikhail: No. The Scrum Glossary gives the following definition for Product Backlog: “It is an ordered list of the work to be done in order to create, maintain and sustain a product.” So, Scrum is not specific about exactly what a Product Backlog Item is or how it should be expressed. It is just “work to be done”.
      The Scrum Guide gives a bit more details about a PBI: it should have the attributes of a description, order, estimate, and value. However, it does not change the “work to be done” definition much. For example, a Product Backlog can contain knowledge acquisition tasks, prototyping, technical chores etc.
      However, there is one important moment: a Product Backlog should contain items that the Product Owner cares about, in the sense that they add clear business value and can be ordered by him or her. If there are some “Developer Stories”, i.e. removing technical debt, they can be introduced by the Development Team into their own Sprint Backlog, if they think such stories are necessary in order to help mitigate a technical risk.

      Q: Should the PO approve the DoD?
      Mikhail: The Scrum Guide says that everyone in the Scrum Team must understand what “Done” means. So, the PO should be definitely aware of the DoD.
      However, only the Development Team is in a position to define the DoD, because it asserts the quality of the work that *they* must perform.
      The quality asserted must be appropriate for the Product, which implies that the PO must be consulted. Failure to consult the PO may result in an Increment not being accepted, as the DoD would not then be shared.
      So, the answer is a kind of “yes”. Formally the approval is not required, but practically the DT and the PO should agree on the DoD. Otherwise the PO may not accept the Increment. For example, the PO can find that the Product is too buggy, slow, hard to use, etc.

      Q: Who can create a Product Backlog item? Can the Scrum Master do it?
      Mikhail: The Scrum guide says:
      The Product Owner is the sole person responsible for managing the Product Backlog… The Product Owner may do the above work, or have the Development Team do it. However, the Product Owner remains accountable.

      Creation of a PBI relates to PB management. So, certainly the PO is responsible for this. However, he can delegate this work to the Development Team.
      If the Scrum Master combines his role with the Developer role (the most common situation), he is a part of the Development Team and can create PBIs when it is agreed with the PO. Otherwise, I think, he should not do it.

      In my quizzes I have a similar question: who can change the PB? The answer is “The PO and the DT with permission of the PO.”

      Q: How to address non-functional requirements such as security, performance?
      Mikhail: Non-functional-requirements describe qualities of the system being developed. E.g. the system should be secure, extensible and have acceptable performance. The only way to meet such requirements is to have them as a part of the DoD and check every Increment against these criteria.
      From my side I would mention that if some non-functional requirements relate only to a part of the Product (i.e. to some feature), most likely the requirements should be processed as a sub-task within this feature instead of the DoD.

  9. Tigran

    Thanks a lot Mikhail for your assitance!

    I’ve just completed PSPO I certification a few moments ago with 92.5%.

    Assessment: PSPO I
    Date: January 20, 2018 8:47:26 AM EST

    PASS
    Score: 74 points scored (or 92.5%) out of 80 maximum points

    1. mlapshin (Post author)

      Well done, Tigran!

  10. beni

    Hi,
    First of all, thank you for the questions they are really helpful. I appreciate it!
    I think the solution of the following question is not a clear yes or no.

    „All the Scrum Teams working on the same
    product should have the same Sprint length.“
    Your answer is no, but it can also be yes, since at every end of sprint a potentially releaseabe increment should be the outcome. So it is needed that before a sprint end every team merged it work in order to achieve that. Which implicit means they should have start and end at the same time. Imagine one is making only GUI adjustments and another team the business logic. At tuesday the GUI is ready and on Thursday the logic is implented. As a PO can I deliver on Tuesday ? I don’t think so.

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